Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide ; biological fields use similar standards.
It is usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text. For instance "chocolate chip cookies" is unlikely to be misread as "chocolate chip-cookies", despite that being the literal interpretation, and so the hyphen can usually be omitted from "chocolate-chip cookies".
Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember.
However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway.
Others argue that omitting "I" and "we" results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct "We did X" sentences. Avoid direct quotes In scientific as opposed to literary or historical writing, direct quotes should be used only when the precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.
Giving examples also makes your writing more comprehensive, showing other ways of looking at a topic and allows readers to investigate information further.
Grammatically, the function of the dash is to separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the dash.
Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read. But it is much safer simply to avoid "comprise" altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean "compose". If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do.
In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the issue and explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. However, I do not like tangerines. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper.
In the context of research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for success and no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled anything else looks unprofessional. Informal includes rhetorical question Formal Industrial sites cause vast amounts of environmental pollution, so why do we still use them?
Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing.
Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of what one author said about another author.
Public transport includes vehicles for public use on the roads, airways, waterways etc. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents.
It is questionable whether the "Design School Model" provides a practical solution to the problem of strategy formulation. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in "ly", though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial "ly" words like "early" as in the correct examples "an early-rising rooster" or "an early-rising English-language learner".
Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any.
I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an "en" dash, i. If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like "his", "the author", etc.
Accepted American usage is to write "life is hard," but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error.
For example, the phrase "English language learners" as written means "language learners from England", because, by default, "language" modifies "learners", and "English" modifies "language learners".
Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the title of an article when you refer to it in the text.
One common approach is to use author-date citations like " Smith, Wu, and Tong ", but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine.
Formal and Informal Email Phrases Starting with Greetings Giving Examples It is extremely important to supply examples to your readers which will illustrate your points.
Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite.
If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. Instead use "topic" or "section", etc.Tips for Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing The following is a list of solutions to problems I have encountered repeatedly in my students' formal writing, such as coursework, research papers, and literature surveys.
Using Appropriate Words in an Academic Essay 3 Using Appropriate Words in an Academic Essay and academic writing takes place in what is considered a formal context. In addition, academic essays are expected to be clear and. Checklist of language to avoid in academic writing.
1. Do not use contractions Contractions are the words formed from two abbreviated words, such as "don't", "can't" and "won't". Please write the full words. 2. Do not use colloquial vocabulary Colloquial vocabulary includes words and expressions that are used in everyday spoken language.
Formal language. You tend to find formal language in academic journals or official documents and notices where it brings an extra degree of seriousness to the subject.
As a general rule, it isn't appropriate for everyday situations. Here are some examples of formal words with their equivalents in standard English - notice that the formal words. Academic writing tends to be quite formal in style. The vocabulary items that you use in your writing can affect the level of formality.
Writers The following is a list of the words from the Academic Word List that are highlighted in this dictionary. Words shown in bold are one of the ‘parent words’. Academic Word List 4. The result can range from funny to confusing, which defeats the purpose of academic writing: to be as clear and concise as possible, using just the right words to convey your argument.
Using uncommon words, instead of making your paper seem smarter, generally detracts from your ideas.Download