Portuguese is mostly spoken in Brazil, which is the most populated country on the continent. The country was once partitioned into three parts, each being controlled by one of the colonial powers until the country was finally taken over fully by the British.
Finally, with the expansion of the Portuguese and Spanish languages, many cultures that were previously separated became united through that of Latin American. The Inca—Spanish confrontation in the Battle of Cajamarca left thousands of natives dead.
Illustration of the Demerara rebellion in British Guiana in In terms of the treaty, all land to the west of the line known to comprise most of the South American soil would belong to Spain, and all land to the east, to Portugal.
Because Mexico and Central America share an Iberian heritage with nearly all of South America, this entire region frequently is grouped under the name Latin America.
Religion South America is predominantly a continent of Christians. Related topics are discussed in the articles Latin America, history ofand Latin American literature. In areas of north Argentina and Paraguay, which fall near the Tropic of Capricorn, rainfall is sparse and temperatures tend to be warm.
For discussion of the indigenous peoples of the continent, see the articles South American Indian ; and pre-Columbian civilizations. The term America originally was applied only to South America, but the designation soon was applied to the entire landmass.
One of the earliest known South American civilizations was at Norte Chicoon the central Peruvian coast. The Falkland Malvinas Islands are east of southern Argentina.
South america the extreme south of Argentina, there is a sub arctic climate. InPortugal and Spainthe two great maritime European powers of that time, on the expectation of new lands being discovered in the west, signed the Treaty of Tordesillasby which they agreed, with the support of the Pope, that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries.
They were goldsmiths and farmers. Trade winds regulate temperatures in the northeast of the continent, meaning that the climates in Suriname, French Guiana, and Guyana are considerably cooler than their neighbors to the west.
Although the northern part of South America extends north of the Equator and four-fifths of its landmass is located within the tropics, it also reaches subantarctic latitudes. Other organizations include the Union of South America Nations, which consists of 12 countries and has its headquarters in Quito, Ecuador.
Relatively few islands rim the continent, except in the south. By total population, the most popular languages are Portuguese and Spanish. The Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America is an organization which seeks the social, political, and economic integration of countries in both Latin America and the Caribbean.
The great range in elevation produces an unrivaled diversity of climatic and ecological zones, which is probably the most prominent characteristic of South American geography. It is the tallest mountain found outside of Asia.
A number of trade agreements exist within South America. Other indigenous languages include Aymara, spoken in Bolivia and Peru, and Wayuu, spoken in northern Colombia and northwest Venezuela.
Baroque painting in Central and South America is basically an extension of that of Spain and Portugal, and even the best rarely rises to the general standard of the European schools. Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture. Known as Tawantin suyu, and "the land of the four regions," in Quechuathe Inca Empire was highly distinct and developed.
The rise of plant growing and the subsequent appearance of permanent human settlements allowed for the multiple and overlapping beginnings of civilizations in South America. At the beginning, many mestizos of the Andean region were offspring of Amerindian mothers and Spanish fathers.
Few of these peoples, however, survived the arrival of Europeans aftermost succumbing to disease or mixing with people of European and especially in Brazil African origin.
Some parts South america the continent are now industrialized, with modern cities, but the people in rural areas still follow an agricultural way of life. Think you know your South American countries? Holding their capital at the great city of Cuscothe Inca civilization dominated the Andes region from to The Muisca were the main indigenous civilization in what is now Colombia.
Landforms Andes Mountains The Andean Mountains, or Andes, stretch for nearly 7, km across the continent, from the top to the bottom. Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed by Spanish explorers; this included many gold and silver sculptures and other artifacts found in South America, which were melted down before their transport to Spain or Portugal.National Geographic offers a number of guided trips.
Find the one for you, whether it's one of our signature expeditions, our active outdoors adventures, or our lower-priced journeys. About South America.
South America is the fourth largest continent, the southern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. It is divided politically into 12 independent countries— Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela —and the overseas department of French Guiana.
South America has an area of 17, km2 or almost % of Earth's total land area. By land area, South America is the world's fourth largest continent after Asia, Africa, and North America. South America is the fourth largest continent in size and the fifth largest in population. It is located primarily in the southern hemisphere.
It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The geography of South America is dominated by the Andes Mountain Range. Map of South America and travel information about South America brought to you by Lonely Planet.
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